Treaty Of Versailles Agreements

The treaty caused much discontent in Germany, which benefited Adolf Hitler in his rise to the leadership of Nazi Germany. The emphasis was on the belief in the myth that the German army had not lost the war and had been betrayed by the Weimar Republic, which was negotiating an unnecessary surrender. The Great Depression aggravated the problem and led to the collapse of the German economy. Although the contract may not have caused the crash, it was a convenient scapegoat. The Germans regarded the treaty as a humiliation and listened eagerly to Hitler`s oratory, which held the treaty responsible for the abuses in Germany. Hitler promised to reverse the cauterizations of the Allied powers and regain Germany`s lost territory and pride, which led the treaty to be invoked as the cause of World War II. [178] The British historian of modern Germany, Richard J. Evans, wrote that during the war, the German right had embarked on an annexation programme aimed at Germany annexing most of Europe and Africa. Therefore, any peace treaty that did not leave Germany as a conqueror would be unacceptable to them. [163] Without allowing Germany to retain all the conquests of the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk, Evans argued that nothing could have been done to convince German law to accept Versailles. [163] Evans also pointed out that the parties of the Weimar coalition, namely the German Social Democratic Party (SPD), the German Social Liberal Democratic Party (DDP) and the Christian Democratic Centrism party, are all opposed to Versailles in the same way, and it is wrong to say that some historians claim that resistance to Versailles is also similar to that of the opposition to the Weimar Republic. [163] Finally, Evans argued that it was wrong that Versailles caused the premature end of the Republic, claiming instead that it was the Great Depression of the early 1930s that had put an end to German democracy. He also argued that Versailles was not the “main cause” of Nazism and that the German economy was “only marginally influenced by the effects of reparations”.

[163] Among the many provisions of the treaty, one of the most important and controversial required “Germany [the responsibility of Germany and its allies] for the cause of all losses and damage” during the war (the other members of the central powers signed treaties containing similar articles). This article, Section 231, later became known as the War Debt Clause. The treaty required Germany to disarm, make abundant territorial concessions and pay reparations to certain countries formed by the powers of the Agreement. In 1921, the total cost of these repairs was estimated at 132 billion gold marks (at the time $31.4 billion, or $6.6 billion, or about $442 billion, or 284 billion British dollars in 2020). At the time, economists, particularly John Maynard Keynes (a British delegate to the Paris peace conference), predicted that the treaty was too harsh – a “Carthaginian peace” – and said that the number of reparations was excessive and counterproductive, opinions that have been the subject of debate from historians and economists since then. On the other hand, prominent allies, such as French Marshal Ferdinand Foch, criticized the treaty for treating Germany with too much leniency. The Treaty of Versaille was the most important agreement, which came in 1919 from the Paris Peace Conference, which followed the end of the First World War.

This entry was posted in Uncategorized. Bookmark the permalink.