Treaty of Versailles Agreements

According to the French and the British will, Germany was subjected to strict punitive measures after the Treaty of Versailles. The new German government had to give up about 10% of its pre-war territory in Europe and all its overseas possessions. The port city of Danzig (now Danzig) and the coal-rich Saar were placed under the administration of the League of Nations, and France was allowed to exploit the saar`s economic resources until 1935. The German army and navy were limited in size. Emperor Wilhelm II and a number of other senior German officials were to be tried as war criminals. Under Article 231 of the Treaty, the Germans assumed responsibility for the war and, as such, were obliged to pay financial reparations to the Allies, although the actual amount was determined by an Inter-Allied Commission that would present its results in 1921 (the amount they had set was 132 billion gold-rich marks, or $32 billion). which was added to an upfront payment of $5 billion required by the contract). The Germans would be annoyed by these difficult conditions imposed by the Treaty of Versailles. As France ratified the treaty and was active in the league, the jubilant mood quickly gave way to a political reaction for Clemenceau. The French right considered the treaty too lenient and saw it in the fact that it did not meet all of France`s requirements. Left-wing politicians attacked the treaty and Clemenceau as too harsh (the latter turned into a ritual condemnation of the treaty, for politicians who were still commenting on French foreign policy in August 1939). Marshal Ferdinand Foch said: “This (treaty) is not peace. It has been a ceasefire for twenty years.

» ; a criticism of the failure of the annexation of the Rhineland and the endangerment of French security in favor of the United States and Great Britain. [78] [73] [74] [77] [79] [80] [81] When Clemenceau ran for president of France in January 1920, he suffered a defeat. [81] Perhaps the most humiliating part of the treaty for defeated Germany was Article 231, commonly referred to as the “war guilt clause.” This clause obliged the German nation to assume full responsibility for the outbreak of the First World War. Germany should therefore be held liable for all property damage. The British historian of modern Germany, Richard J. Evans, wrote that during the war, the German right was engaged in an annexation program aimed at Germany annexing most of Europe and Africa. Therefore, any peace treaty that does not leave Germany as a conqueror would be unacceptable to them. [163] In addition to allowing Germany to retain all the conquests of the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk, Evans argued that nothing could have been done to persuade German law to accept Versailles. [163] Evans further noted that the parties in the Weimar coalition, namely the Social Democratic Party of Germany (SPD), the Social Liberal Democratic Party of Germany (DDP), and the Centre-Christian Democratic Party, were all equally opposed to Versailles, and it is wrong to claim, as some historians claim, that the opposition to Versailles also corresponded to the opposition to the Weimar Republic.

[163] Finally, Evans argued that it was false that Versailles caused the premature end of the Republic, and instead claimed that it was the Great Depression of the early 1930s that ended German democracy. Lord Robert Cecil said many in the Foreign Office were disappointed with the treaty. [71] The treaty is widely accepted by the public. Bernadotte Schmitt wrote that “the average Englishman. thought that Germany had only got what it deserved” as a result of the treaty. [73] However, public opinion changed as German complaints increased. [74] German officials have systematically conspired to circumvent the terms of the treaty by failing to meet disarmament deadlines, denying Allied officials access to military facilities, and maintaining and hiding weapons production. [133] Since the treaty does not prohibit German companies from producing war material outside Germany, the companies set up in the Netherlands, Switzerland and Sweden. Bofors was bought by Krupp, and in 1921 German troops were sent to Sweden to test weapons.

[134] The establishment of diplomatic relations with the Soviet Union through the Genoa Conference and the Treaty of Rapallo was also used to circumvent the Treaty of Versailles. Publicly, this diplomatic exchange was largely about trade and future economic cooperation. However, secret military clauses were included that allowed Germany to develop weapons within the Soviet Union. In addition, it allowed Germany to establish three training zones for aviation, chemistry and tank warfare. [135] [incomplete short citation] [136] [incomplete short citation] [137] [138] In 1923, the British newspaper The Times made several claims about the state of the German Wehrmacht: it had equipment for 800,000 men, transferred army personnel to civilian posts to conceal their actual tasks, and warned against the militarization of the German police through the exploitation of the Krümper system. [139] [vi] The Germans were angry with the treaty, regarded it as a diktat, or dictated peace; they were bitterly annoyed by the sole blame for the war, which was placed at their feet. The nation`s reparations burden eventually exceeded 132 billion Reichsmarks of gold, or about $33 billion, a sum so large that no one expected Germany to be able to pay in full; In fact, economists like John Maynard Keynes predicted that the European economy would collapse if it did. Vittorio Emanuele Orlando and his foreign minister Sidney Sonnino, an Anglican of British origin, worked mainly to ensure the division of the Habsburg Empire, and their attitude towards Germany was not so hostile. In general, Sonnino agreed with the British position, while Orlando preferred a compromise between Clemenceau and Wilson. As part of the negotiations on the Treaty of Versailles, Orlando achieved some results, such as Italy`s permanent accession to the League of Nations Security Council and a promised transfer of the British bands of Jubaland and Français`Aozou to the Italian colonies of Somalia and Libya respectively.

Italian nationalists, however, saw the war as a mutilated victory for what they saw as small territorial gains made in other treaties that directly affected Italy`s borders. Orlando was eventually forced to leave the conference and resign. Orlando refused to see World War I as a mutilated victory, responding to nationalists calling for greater expansion that “today`s Italy is a great state.” on an equal footing with the great historical and contemporary states. For me, this is our main and main expansion. Francesco Saverio Nitti took Orlando`s place when he signed the Treaty of Versailles. [54] [incomplete short citation] The British Second Army, with about 275,000 veterans, moved to Germany in late 1918. [119] [113] In March 1919, this force became the British Army of the Rhine (BAOR). The total number of soldiers deployed to the occupation declined rapidly as veteran soldiers were demobilized and replaced by inexperienced men who had completed their basic training after the end of hostilities. [119] In 1920, the BAOR had only 40,594 men and was reduced to 12,421 the following year.

The size of the BAOR fluctuated over the following years, but never exceeded 9,000 men. [120] [incomplete short citation] The British did not respect all the territorial withdrawals prescribed by Versailles because Germany did not respect its own contractual obligations. [121] A complete withdrawal was considered but rejected in order to maintain the presence, continue to control French ambitions and prevent the establishment of an autonomous Rhine Republic. [122] The Senate`s opposition to the Treaty of Versailles invoked Article 10 of the Treaty, which dealt with collective security and the League of Nations.